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Old 06-07-06, 01:21 PM
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Cool Today in History, June 7th

June 7, 1942

On June 7, 1942, the Battle of Midway--one of the most decisive U.S. victories
in its war against Japan--comes to an end. In the four-day sea and air battle,
the outnumbered U.S. Pacific Fleet succeeded in destroying four Japanese
aircraft carriers with the loss of only one of its own, the Yorktown, thus
reversing the tide against the previously invincible Japanese navy.In six months
of offensives, the Japanese had triumphed in lands throughout the Pacific,
including Malaysia, Singapore, the Dutch East Indies, the Philippines, and
numerous island groups. The United States, however, was a growing threat, and
Japanese Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto sought to destroy the U.S. Pacific Fleet
before it was large enough to outmatch his own. A thousand miles northwest of
Honolulu, the strategic island of Midway became the focus of his scheme to smash
U.S. resistance to Japan's imperial designs. Yamamoto's plan consisted of a
feint toward Alaska followed by an invasion of Midway by a Japanese strike
force. When the U.S. Pacific Fleet arrived at Midway to respond to the invasion,
it would be destroyed by the superior Japanese fleet waiting unseen to the west.
If successful, the plan would eliminate the U.S. Pacific Fleet and provide a
forward outpost from which the Japanese could eliminate any future American
threat in the Central Pacific.Unfortunately for the Japanese, U.S. intelligence
broke the Japanese naval code, and the Americans anticipated the surprise
attack. Three heavy aircraft carriers of the U.S. Pacific Fleet were mustered to
challenge the four heavy Japanese carriers steaming toward Midway. In early
June, U.S. command correctly recognized a Japanese movement against Alaska's
Aleutian Islands as a diversionary tactic and kept its forces massed around
Midway. On June 3, the Japanese occupation force was spotted steaming toward the
island, and B-17 Flying Fortresses were sent out from Midway to bomb the strike
force but failed to inflict damage. Early in the morning on June 4, a PBY
Catalina flying boat torpedoed a Japanese tanker transport, striking the first
blow of the Battle of Midway. Later that morning, an advance Japanese squadron
numbering more than 100 bombers and Zero fighters took off from the Japanese
carriers to bomb Midway. Twenty-six Wildcat fighters were sent up to intercept
the Japanese force and suffered heavy losses in their heroic defense of Midway's
air base. Soon after, bombers and torpedo planes based on Midway took off to
attack the Japanese carriers but failed to inflict serious damage. The first
phase of the battle was over by 7:00 a.m.In the meantime, 200 miles to the
northeast, two U.S. attack fleets caught the Japanese force entirely by
surprise. Beginning around 9:30 a.m., torpedo bombers from the three U.S.
carriers descended on the Japanese carriers. Although nearly wiped out, they
drew off enemy fighters, and U.S. dive bombers penetrated, catching the Japanese
carriers while their decks were cluttered with aircraft and fuel. The
dive-bombers quickly destroyed three of the heavy Japanese carriers and one
heavy cruiser. The only Japanese carrier that initially escaped destruction, the
Hiryu, loosed all its aircraft against the American task force and managed to
seriously damage the U.S. carrier Yorktown, forcing its abandonment. At about
5:00 p.m., dive-bombers from the U.S. carrier Enterprise returned the favor,
mortally damaging the Hiryu. It was scuttled the next morning.Admiral Isoruku
Yamamoto still had numerous warships at his command, but without his carriers
and aircraft he was forced to abandon his Midway invasion plans and begin a
westward retreat. On June 5, a U.S. task force pursued his fleet, but bad
weather saved it from further destruction. On June 6, the skies cleared, and
U.S. aircraft resumed their assault, sinking a cruiser and damaging several
other warships. After the planes returned to their carriers, the Americans broke
off from the pursuit. Meanwhile, a Japanese submarine torpedoed and fatally
wounded the Yorktown, which was in the process of being salvaged. It finally
rolled over and sank at dawn on June 7, bringing an end to the battle.At the
Battle of Midway, Japan lost four carriers, a cruiser, and 292 aircraft, and
suffered 2,500 casualties. The U.S. lost the Yorktown, the destroyer USS
Hammann, 145 aircraft, and suffered 307 casualties. Japan's losses hobbled its
naval might--bringing Japanese and American sea power to approximate parity--and
marked the turning point in the Pacific theater of World War II. In August 1942,
the great U.S. counteroffensive began at Guadalcanal and did not cease until
Japan's surrender three years later.
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