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Causes of Bleeding During Pregnancy

by Teresa Shaw
26 Comments


Causes of Bleeding During Pregnancy

There can be many causes for vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, which can range from mild to serious. However, as alarming as it might be to find that you are spotting or bleeding while you are pregnant, be advised that most women who bleed during pregnancy, primarily during the first trimester, go on to deliver healthy babies at term.

It's important to know the most common causes of vaginal bleeding during each stage of pregnancy so that you can know what to watch for and when to contact your health care provider.

First Trimester Bleeding or Spotting

Light vaginal bleeding experienced during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy can occur due to a host of causes. The American Pregnancy Association reports that studies show that 20-30% of women experience some degree of bleeding in early pregnancy. Following are some of the causes for bleeding in the first trimester.

Implantation. When the fertilized egg implants into the lining of your uterus, it can cause some spotting. This usually occurs at about 10 to 14 days after fertilization, and is spottier and lighter in color than a normal menstrual period. Women sometimes do mistake this light bleeding for a period and don't realize that they're pregnant.

Miscarriage. Vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage; however, bleeding doesn't necessarily mean that you're having a miscarriage. The American Pregnancy Association reports that about half of pregnant women who bleed do not have miscarriages. Approximately 15-20% of all pregnancies result in a miscarriage, most of which occur during the first 12 weeks. Up to 15% of known pregnancies end in miscarriage, according to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

Ectopic pregnancies. Ectopic pregnancy is when the fertilized egg implant somewhere outside the uterus, most commonly in the fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancies are less common than miscarriages, occurring in 1 of 60 pregnancies, the American Pregnancy Association reports.

Molar pregnancies. Molar pregnancy is the rare case of an abnormal mass (instead of a baby) forming inside the uterus after fertilization. It is also referred to as gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Signs include bleeding, unusually high hCG levels, and absent fetal heart tones.

The Mayo Clinic suggests that if you have slight vaginal bleeding that goes away within a day, tell your health care provider at your next visit. If you experience bleeding that lasts more than a day, contact your health care provider within the next 24 hours. Contact him or her immediately if you experience moderate to heavy vaginal bleeding; experience any amount of bleeding accompanied by abdominal pain, cramping, fever or chills; or pass tissue from your vagina.

Second or Third Trimester Bleeding or Spotting

During the third trimester, the cervix begins to thin out in preparation for preparation for labor. When this happens, the mucus plug that had been sealing the opening of the cervix is dislodged and you may notice a thick or stringy discharge, sometimes tinged with blood.

This "bloody show" is a normal sign of impending labor, and may occur up to a week or two before delivery. However, there are some other causes of bleeding that can be ore serious, including the following.

Miscarriage.

Again, vaginal bleeding is the primary sign of miscarriage. Although most common during the first trimester, there is still a risk for miscarriage in the second trimester.

Preterm labor.

Light bleeding in the second or third trimester may be a sign of preterm labor, especially if you are also experiencing regular contractions, a dull backache, or pelvic pressure.

Placenta previa or placental abruption.

Painless, bright red vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester may be a sign of placenta previa, a serious problem where the placenta partly or completely covers the opening to the birth canal. Placental abruption is when the placenta begins to separate from the inner wall of the uterus before the baby is born. Bleeding may be slight to heavy, or in between, and is usually accompanied by abdominal pain.

Uterine rupture.

Uterine rupture is a rare condition in which the uterus tears open along the scar line from a prior C-section. Vaginal bleeding, intense abdominal pain and abdominal tenderness may result. If this happens, either before or during labor, an emergency C-section is needed to prevent life-threatening complications.

Your health care provider should be contacted if you have any amount of vaginal bleeding in the second or third trimester. Most likely, you will need to be examined in the doctor's office or hospital. Call your doctor immediately if you have vaginal bleeding paired with pain, cramping, fever or chills, or contractions.

Bleeding during pregnancy can be worrisome. By understanding the most common causes of vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, you'll be prepared and know when it's wise to contact your health care provider.

Teresa Shaw is a professional editor and freelance writer with a degree in English and journalism. She writes about motherhood, travel, and cooking, among other topics, for a variety of print and online markets. She enjoys spending time with her husband, daughter, two cats, and dog.

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alyson Aug 3, 2014 04:50:27 PM ET

I am 7 weeks pregnant, and i have been feeling cramping and a lot of abdominal pains. when i went to the bathroom and wiped, there were blood clots and blood in my tissue, and there was blood in the toilet too when i peed. i don't know what to do. it's only when i pee. i don't feel blood coming down or anything. i need help please.

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lorel Jul 20, 2014 03:14:54 AM ET

I'm 32 weeks pregnant. i had back pains and striking pains in my abdomen. but, then yesterday after work i went to the loo, and when i wiped myself i noticed a pink slimy discharge. it's been almost 24 hours after, and still when i wipe myself light red blood is on the paper. what can it be? i have no pain.

Guest Aug 2, 2014 10:30:13 PM ET

Your mucus plug came out. your body is preparing for labor.

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Guest May 19, 2014 09:51:57 PM ET

I'm 26 weeks pregnant and when i went to pee and wiped, pink mucus was present on the toilet paper. what should i do? should i be concerned?

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Guest Jan 30, 2014 12:29:40 AM ET

Please help. i am 16 weeks pregnant and when i go to the bathroom and wipe there is blood on tissue. i am scared. could anyone help? thanks.

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Guest Dec 26, 2013 02:57:47 AM ET

So my girlfriend is 5 months pregnant. why did she wipe a little blood after peeing?

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Guest Dec 14, 2013 06:22:47 AM ET

Have started trying for a baby at the end of my last period, its now a week before my next period and i have started to bleed lightly/spotting only when i wipe with toilet paper, i also have pain in lower abdominal area on left side. my period is never early is always late if anything by a couple of days. could this possibly be implantation.

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Guest Oct 20, 2013 12:20:59 AM ET

I'm the same too. i'm 15 weeks preg bleeding and have had clots i've had a big one that freaked me out baby is fine placenta is fine and they don't know what's causing the bleeding. its annoying and scary and you're meant to be enjoying being preg. help.

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MAMA KAY Sep 18, 2013 06:33:03 PM ET

About 8 - 10 weeks, had bleeding almost period like but looked reddish purple, no clot no severe pain, was on my feet a lot today and was having slight lower back pain, also i think sex with my husband the night before may have contributed. i didt have a pinkish brown spotting a bout a week and half before, which i wasnt worried about. the right side of my obdm is aching as well, not sure if it's all normal, praying that it is. has anyone experience the same?

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Thandi Aug 19, 2013 01:29:36 AM ET

I,m 16 weeks preg n i,m bleeding brown blood,i,m warried about my baby.and since i bleed i cant fell my baby movement pleasa help

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Robynh422 May 7, 2013 09:55:05 AM ET

Ok, so why is there virtually no information about broken cervical capillaries when asking about first trimester bleeding? i was so scared when twice this weekend (6 weeks 4 days pregnant) i bled in 2 separate "spurts", bright red, no clots, no cramps, but way more blood than my period ever had (i could actually feel it coming out). a frantic search online had these same potential causes. 1. implantation (ok, we're way past that. 2. miscarriage. 3. eptopic, and getting progressively worse from there. not one "hey it could be as simple as a broken capillary"?! well that is what it was, i could have saved myself a lot of tears and stress if that potential cause were a little more well known. i get they want us to go see a doctor with any bleeding, but it would have been nice to see that as #2 instead of going straight to the m word. all is well and my baby's little heart is beating like a champ, but i wanted everyone to know my experience.

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